Aboriginal and Torrers Strait Islander people are advised that this
page contains images of people who have died.
Women in war
Women in action - nurses and serving women
(australia.gov.au, previously at cultureandrecreation.gov.au)
- Australian nursing services
- World War 1
- Women's service organisations
- World War 2
- Post World War 2
- Recognising Australian women's war efforts Women in wartime
(schools.nsw.edu.au, previously at
australia.gov.au and cultureandrecreation.gov.au) This is a saved extract. For the full original page see the
Anzac Memories: The Letters of Francis James Mack
Corporal Francis James Mack died in France in 1918, aged 20
years. Note the observation on the change in the role of women made in the
first paragraph of the letter written home from England on 27 January 1917:
"...girls doing all sorts of jobs... to put it plainly, girls are doing
Casualty Clearance: The WW1 Nurses(anzacday.org.au) Roslyn Bell provides a short
history of the Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps and uses diary
entries to describe the experiences the nurses endured during World
War 1. This is followed by the story of Alice Ross-King, from Just Soldiers by Darryl Kelly.
Women in World War 1 (centenaryofanzac.tas.gov.au) A summary of the types of
contributions women gave to the war effort, along with comments on the
impact war had on them.
Women's services in World War 2 (anzacday.org.au)
"Comparing image and reality in the WAAAF."
Theactivity overview lists six components involving investigation:
the image presented, involving
- the reality: the reasons some women DID
join the WAAF
- the reality: why some women
DID NOT join the WAAAF
what women did - what women did and were paid
- One WAAAF remembers: questions on an extract of the story of Judy
Australian Women's Army Service (AWAS) (awm.gov.au) A
range of formally organised groups of women formed to help the war
effort in World War 2. The Australian Women's Army Service was
formed in August 1941 with the specific aim of enabling more men to
be released to fight overseas.
The roles of women in the war (Skwirk.com.au Interactive Schooling)
The emotional burden, women's place in society, charity and
fundraising activities, children's roles, the working class, women and
propaganda. (Note that this is a commercial site which requires paid
membership for further information and access to illustrations.) For a
dot-point summary, see
Women and the warChapter 1: The roles of women in the war.
Women in World War 1 (dictionaryofsydney.org)
The effect of war on many women was to bring out their political
instincts and take leading roles in opposing conscription and war in
Women in the Australian military (en.wikipedia.org)
A history of the participation of women in the Australian
military, plus the story and issues relating to integration.
World War 1 and Australia (guides.sl.nsw.gov.au)
Women at war: This collection of suggested books on Australian
women involved in World War 1 could be a starting point for those
seeking to undertake further research. Scroll down for a list of
War diaries and letters written by women who served.
Indigenous defence service (awm.gov.au)
Scroll about two-thirds of the way down for some general information
on the role of Aboriginal and Islander women and a reference to the
work of Oodgeroo Noonuccal (Kath Walker).
Australian nurses in World War 1 (centenaryww1orange.com.au) A
brief history of nursing during World War 1 in particular, followed by a
list of links to stories about 29 nurses in the Orange (NSW) area.
doctors in the First World War (auswhn.org.au) Women
doctors were keen to risk their lives or undego particularly uncomfortable
conditions in World War 1. This blog post describes the history and
contribution of two Australian doctors: - Isobel Ormiston - Agnes
The forgotten women doctors of the Great War (theconversation.com)
This article by Heather Sheard examines why Australian women doctors were
keen to serve in the World War 1, and provides information about two
doctors: - Laura Forster - Isobel Ormiston
Captain Vivian Bullwinkel
Vivian Bullwinkel belonged to the Australian Army Nursing
Service and was the sole survivor of the Banka Island massacre in 1942.
During World War 1, Australian nurse Alice Cashin
first worked in a hospital in France. After joining the army's
nursing service reserve she took charge of a ward in a hospital
in Egypt and later she survived a torpedo attack on a hospital
Phoebe Chapple (awm.gov.au) During World War 1 Phoebe Chapple joined the
army medical corps and was one of the first two women doctors to
serve at the front. She was the first woman doctor to receive a
Military Medal (MM).
Ross-King (anzacday.org.au) Alice Ross-King enlisted in the AIF
(Australian Imperial Force) in November 1914. She served in
Egypt and accompanied wounded Gallipoli soldiers who were
returned to Australia. She later served in France, experiencing
some close shaves. Alys Ross-King changed her name to Alice and
as a nurse was known as Sister Alice Ross-King, Sister Alice
Ross or Sister Ross. After her marriage to a doctor her name
became Alice Appleford.
Marion Leane Smith (indigenoushistories.com) Marion Smith was an Australian-born
Aboriginal who moved to Canada as a child, trained as a nurse in
the USA and in 1917 volunteered to serve in World War 1 as a
nurse. (See above for more information.)
Activities for students
Australian Women in War (anzacportal.dva.gov.au)
From this page you can download the (very large) complete document Australian Women in War [pdf 24MB], or
from the same page download the
following sections individually (as pdf files):
Introduction for Teachers
Unit 1: Australian Women in the Second South African Anglo-Boer War
Unit 2: Australian Women in World War I (1914-1918)
Unit 3: Australian Women in World War II (1939-1945)
Unit 4: Australian Women in British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) and
the Korean War (1946-1953)
Unit 5: Australian Women in the Vietnam War (1962-1973)
Unit 6: Australian Women in the Australian Defence Force and in Peace
Operations (1947 – Today)
- Unit 7: Australian Women and Commemoration
Australian nurses (primary) (awm.gov.au) Provides many pdf files
of activities involving Australian nurses, some specific to the Boer War,
the First World War and the Second World War, and some of a general nature.
Australian nurses (secondary) (awm.gov.au) Like the previous
item, this page provides many pdf files of activities involving Australian
nurses, some specific to the Boer War, the First World War and the Second
World War, and some of a general nature.
Women at War: The changing role of women in times of conflict [pdf file]
(archived from dva.gov.au) Part of Working the Web. Some of the content of
this archived collection of activities for students (such as references to
other web pages) is out-of-date. The document is no longer held on the DVA
website but the link to an archived copy is provided here for teachers who
may be referring students to the activities that are still useful.
World War 1: Women in War (ww1.sl.nsw.gov.au)
Quite a range of ways in which women supported the war effort in
World War 1 are outlined, as well as a number of source documents such as
photographs. Suggested student research
activities arethen suggested.
INTERACTIVE ACTIVITIES Women in War
(anzacday.org.au) Unit 7:
Australian Women and Commemoration
Tim Fischer's Anzac Day Speech 1998 (trademinister.gov.au) Speech on
Australian Women in War by Tim Fischer, Acting Prime Minister and
Minister for Trade, at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 25 April 1998.